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Contents
About.txt
readme.md
getting-started.md
installing-rust.md
hello-world.md
hello-cargo.md
learn-rust.md
guessing-game.md
dining-philosophers.md
rust-inside-other-languages.md
effective-rust.md
the-stack-and-the-heap.md
testing.md
conditional-compilation.md
documentation.md
iterators.md
concurrency.md
error-handling.md
ffi.md
borrow-and-asref.md
release-channels.md
syntax-and-semantics.md
variable-bindings.md
functions.md
primitive-types.md
comments.md
if.md
for-loops.md
while-loops.md
ownership.md
references-and-borrowing.md
lifetimes.md
mutability.md
structs.md
enums.md
match.md
patterns.md
method-syntax.md
vectors.md
strings.md
generics.md
traits.md
drop.md
if-let.md
trait-objects.md
closures.md
ufcs.md
crates-and-modules.md
concordance.md
crates-and-modules
# 5.26. Crates and Modules

When a project starts getting large, it’s considered good software
engineering practice to split it up into a bunch of smaller pieces, and then
fit them together. It’s also important to have a well-defined interface, so
that some of your functionality is private, and some is public. To facilitate
these kinds of things, Rust has a module system.

# Basic terminology: Crates and Modules

Rust has two distinct terms that relate to the module system: ‘crate’ and
‘module’. A crate is synonymous with a ‘library’ or ‘package’ in other
languages. Hence “Cargo” as the name of Rust’s package management tool: you
ship your crates to others with Cargo. Crates can produce an executable or a
library, depending on the project.

Each crate has an implicit *root module* that contains the code for that crate.
You can then define a tree of sub-modules under that root module. Modules allow
you to partition your code within the crate itself.

As an example, let’s make a *phrases* crate, which will give us various phrases
in different languages. To keep things simple, we’ll stick to ‘greetings’ and
‘farewells’ as two kinds of phrases, and use English and Japanese (日本語) as
two languages for those phrases to be in. We’ll use this module layout:

```text
+-----------+
+---| greetings |
| +-----------+
+---------+ |
+---| english |---+
| +---------+ | +-----------+
| +---| farewells |
+---------+ | +-----------+
| phrases |---+
+---------+ | +-----------+
| +---| greetings |
| +----------+ | +-----------+
+---| japanese |--+
+----------+ |
| +-----------+
+---| farewells |
+-----------+
```

In this example, `phrases` is the name of our crate. All of the rest are
modules. You can see that they form a tree, branching out from the crate
*root*, which is the root of the tree: `phrases` itself.

Now that we have a plan, let’s define these modules in code. To start,
generate a new crate with Cargo:

```bash
$ cargo new phrases
$ cd phrases
```

If you remember, this generates a simple project for us:

```bash
$ tree .
.
├── Cargo.toml
└── src
└── lib.rs

1 directory, 2 files
```

`src/lib.rs` is our crate root, corresponding to the `phrases` in our diagram
above.

# Defining Modules

To define each of our modules, we use the `mod` keyword. Let’s make our
`src/lib.rs` look like this:

```rust
mod english {
mod greetings {
}

mod farewells {
}
}

mod japanese {
mod greetings {
}

mod farewells {
}
}
```

After the `mod` keyword, you give the name of the module. Module names follow
the conventions for other Rust identifiers: `lower_snake_case`. The contents of
each module are within curly braces (`{}`).

Within a given `mod`, you can declare sub-`mod`s. We can refer to sub-modules
with double-colon (`::`) notation: our four nested modules are
`english::greetings`, `english::farewells`, `japanese::greetings`, and
`japanese::farewells`. Because these sub-modules are namespaced under their
parent module, the names don’t conflict: `english::greetings` and
`japanese::greetings` are distinct, even though their names are both
`greetings`.

Because this crate does not have a `main()` function, and is called `lib.rs`,
Cargo will build this crate as a library:

```bash
$ cargo build
Compiling phrases v0.0.1 (file:///home/you/projects/phrases)
$ ls target/debug
build deps examples libphrases-a7448e02a0468eaa.rlib native
```

`libphrase-hash.rlib` is the compiled crate. Before we see how to use this
crate from another crate, let’s break it up into multiple files.

# Multiple file crates

If each crate were just one file, these files would get very large. It’s often
easier to split up crates into multiple files, and Rust supports this in two
ways.

Instead of declaring a module like this:

```rust,ignore
mod english {
// contents of our module go here
}
```

We can instead declare our module like this:

```rust,ignore
mod english;
```

If we do that, Rust will expect to find either a `english.rs` file, or a
`english/mod.rs` file with the contents of our module.

Note that in these files, you don’t need to re-declare the module: that’s
already been done with the initial `mod` declaration.

Using these two techniques, we can break up our crate into two directories and
seven files:

```bash
$ tree .
.
├── Cargo.lock
├── Cargo.toml
├── src
│ ├── english
│ │ ├── farewells.rs
│ │ ├── greetings.rs
│ │ └── mod.rs
│ ├── japanese
│ │ ├── farewells.rs
│ │ ├── greetings.rs
│ │ └── mod.rs
│ └── lib.rs
└── target
└── debug
├── build
├── deps
├── examples
├── libphrases-a7448e02a0468eaa.rlib
└── native
```

`src/lib.rs` is our crate root, and looks like this:

```rust,ignore
mod english;
mod japanese;
```

These two declarations tell Rust to look for either `src/english.rs` and
`src/japanese.rs`, or `src/english/mod.rs` and `src/japanese/mod.rs`, depending
on our preference. In this case, because our modules have sub-modules, we’ve
chosen the second. Both `src/english/mod.rs` and `src/japanese/mod.rs` look
like this:

```rust,ignore
mod greetings;
mod farewells;
```

Again, these declarations tell Rust to look for either
`src/english/greetings.rs` and `src/japanese/greetings.rs` or
`src/english/farewells/mod.rs` and `src/japanese/farewells/mod.rs`. Because
these sub-modules don’t have their own sub-modules, we’ve chosen to make them
`src/english/greetings.rs` and `src/japanese/farewells.rs`. Whew!

The contents of `src/english/greetings.rs` and `src/japanese/farewells.rs` are
both empty at the moment. Let’s add some functions.

Put this in `src/english/greetings.rs`:

```rust
fn hello() -> String {
"Hello!".to_string()
}
```

Put this in `src/english/farewells.rs`:

```rust
fn goodbye() -> String {
"Goodbye.".to_string()
}
```

Put this in `src/japanese/greetings.rs`:

```rust
fn hello() -> String {
"こんにちは".to_string()
}
```

Of course, you can copy and paste this from this web page, or just type
something else. It’s not important that you actually put ‘konnichiwa’ to learn
about the module system.

Put this in `src/japanese/farewells.rs`:

```rust
fn goodbye() -> String {
"さようなら".to_string()
}
```

(This is ‘Sayōnara’, if you’re curious.)

Now that we have some functionality in our crate, let’s try to use it from
another crate.

# Importing External Crates

We have a library crate. Let’s make an executable crate that imports and uses
our library.

Make a `src/main.rs` and put this in it (it won’t quite compile yet):

```rust,ignore
extern crate phrases;

fn main() {
println!("Hello in English: {}", phrases::english::greetings::hello());
println!("Goodbye in English: {}", phrases::english::farewells::goodbye());

println!("Hello in Japanese: {}", phrases::japanese::greetings::hello());
println!("Goodbye in Japanese: {}", phrases::japanese::farewells::goodbye());
}
```

The `extern crate` declaration tells Rust that we need to compile and link to
the `phrases` crate. We can then use `phrases`’ modules in this one. As we
mentioned earlier, you can use double colons to refer to sub-modules and the
functions inside of them.

Also, Cargo assumes that `src/main.rs` is the crate root of a binary crate,
rather than a library crate. Our package now has two crates: `src/lib.rs` and
`src/main.rs`. This pattern is quite common for executable crates: most
functionality is in a library crate, and the executable crate uses that
library. This way, other programs can also use the library crate, and it’s also
a nice separation of concerns.

This doesn’t quite work yet, though. We get four errors that look similar to
this:

```bash
$ cargo build
Compiling phrases v0.0.1 (file:///home/you/projects/phrases)
src/main.rs:4:38: 4:72 error: function `hello` is private
src/main.rs:4 println!("Hello in English: {}", phrases::english::greetings::hello());
^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
note: in expansion of format_args!
:2:25: 2:58 note: expansion site
:1:1: 2:62 note: in expansion of print!
:3:1: 3:54 note: expansion site
:1:1: 3:58 note: in expansion of println!
phrases/src/main.rs:4:5: 4:76 note: expansion site
```

By default, everything is private in Rust. Let’s talk about this in some more
depth.

# Exporting a Public Interface

Rust allows you to precisely control which aspects of your interface are
public, and so private is the default. To make things public, you use the `pub`
keyword. Let’s focus on the `english` module first, so let’s reduce our `src/main.rs`
to just this:

```rust,ignore
extern crate phrases;

fn main() {
println!("Hello in English: {}", phrases::english::greetings::hello());
println!("Goodbye in English: {}", phrases::english::farewells::goodbye());
}
```

In our `src/lib.rs`, let’s add `pub` to the `english` module declaration:

```rust,ignore
pub mod english;
mod japanese;
```

And in our `src/english/mod.rs`, let’s make both `pub`:

```rust,ignore
pub mod greetings;
pub mod farewells;
```

In our `src/english/greetings.rs`, let’s add `pub` to our `fn` declaration:

```rust,ignore
pub fn hello() -> String {
"Hello!".to_string()
}
```

And also in `src/english/farewells.rs`:

```rust,ignore
pub fn goodbye() -> String {
"Goodbye.".to_string()
}
```

Now, our crate compiles, albeit with warnings about not using the `japanese`
functions:

```bash
$ cargo run
Compiling phrases v0.0.1 (file:///home/you/projects/phrases)
src/japanese/greetings.rs:1:1: 3:2 warning: function is never used: `hello`, #[warn(dead_code)] on by default
src/japanese/greetings.rs:1 fn hello() -> String {
src/japanese/greetings.rs:2 "こんにちは".to_string()
src/japanese/greetings.rs:3 }
src/japanese/farewells.rs:1:1: 3:2 warning: function is never used: `goodbye`, #[warn(dead_code)] on by default
src/japanese/farewells.rs:1 fn goodbye() -> String {
src/japanese/farewells.rs:2 "さようなら".to_string()
src/japanese/farewells.rs:3 }
Running `target/debug/phrases`
Hello in English: Hello!
Goodbye in English: Goodbye.
```

Now that our functions are public, we can use them. Great! However, typing out
`phrases::english::greetings::hello()` is very long and repetitive. Rust has
another keyword for importing names into the current scope, so that you can
refer to them with shorter names. Let’s talk about `use`.

# Importing Modules with `use`

Rust has a `use` keyword, which allows us to import names into our local scope.
Let’s change our `src/main.rs` to look like this:

```rust,ignore
extern crate phrases;

use phrases::english::greetings;
use phrases::english::farewells;

fn main() {
println!("Hello in English: {}", greetings::hello());
println!("Goodbye in English: {}", farewells::goodbye());
}
```

The two `use` lines import each module into the local scope, so we can refer to
the functions by a much shorter name. By convention, when importing functions, it’s
considered best practice to import the module, rather than the function directly. In
other words, you _can_ do this:

```rust,ignore
extern crate phrases;

use phrases::english::greetings::hello;
use phrases::english::farewells::goodbye;

fn main() {
println!("Hello in English: {}", hello());
println!("Goodbye in English: {}", goodbye());
}
```

But it is not idiomatic. This is significantly more likely to introduce a
naming conflict. In our short program, it’s not a big deal, but as it grows, it
becomes a problem. If we have conflicting names, Rust will give a compilation
error. For example, if we made the `japanese` functions public, and tried to do
this:

```rust,ignore
extern crate phrases;

use phrases::english::greetings::hello;
use phrases::japanese::greetings::hello;

fn main() {
println!("Hello in English: {}", hello());
println!("Hello in Japanese: {}", hello());
}
```

Rust will give us a compile-time error:

```text
Compiling phrases v0.0.1 (file:///home/you/projects/phrases)
src/main.rs:4:5: 4:40 error: a value named `hello` has already been imported in this module [E0252]
src/main.rs:4 use phrases::japanese::greetings::hello;
^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
error: aborting due to previous error
Could not compile `phrases`.
```

If we’re importing multiple names from the same module, we don’t have to type it out
twice. Instead of this:

```rust,ignore
use phrases::english::greetings;
use phrases::english::farewells;
```

We can use this shortcut:

```rust,ignore
use phrases::english::{greetings, farewells};
```

## Re-exporting with `pub use`

You don’t just use `use` to shorten identifiers. You can also use it inside of your crate
to re-export a function inside another module. This allows you to present an external
interface that may not directly map to your internal code organization.

Let’s look at an example. Modify your `src/main.rs` to read like this:

```rust,ignore
extern crate phrases;

use phrases::english::{greetings,farewells};
use phrases::japanese;

fn main() {
println!("Hello in English: {}", greetings::hello());
println!("Goodbye in English: {}", farewells::goodbye());

println!("Hello in Japanese: {}", japanese::hello());
println!("Goodbye in Japanese: {}", japanese::goodbye());
}
```

Then, modify your `src/lib.rs` to make the `japanese` mod public:

```rust,ignore
pub mod english;
pub mod japanese;
```

Next, make the two functions public, first in `src/japanese/greetings.rs`:

```rust,ignore
pub fn hello() -> String {
"こんにちは".to_string()
}
```

And then in `src/japanese/farewells.rs`:

```rust,ignore
pub fn goodbye() -> String {
"さようなら".to_string()
}
```

Finally, modify your `src/japanese/mod.rs` to read like this:

```rust,ignore
pub use self::greetings::hello;
pub use self::farewells::goodbye;

mod greetings;
mod farewells;
```

The `pub use` declaration brings the function into scope at this part of our
module hierarchy. Because we’ve `pub use`d this inside of our `japanese`
module, we now have a `phrases::japanese::hello()` function and a
`phrases::japanese::goodbye()` function, even though the code for them lives in
`phrases::japanese::greetings::hello()` and
`phrases::japanese::farewells::goodbye()`. Our internal organization doesn’t
define our external interface.

Here we have a `pub use` for each function we want to bring into the
`japanese` scope. We could alternatively use the wildcard syntax to include
everything from `greetings` into the current scope: `pub use self::greetings::*`.

What about the `self`? Well, by default, `use` declarations are absolute paths,
starting from your crate root. `self` makes that path relative to your current
place in the hierarchy instead. There’s one more special form of `use`: you can
`use super::` to reach one level up the tree from your current location. Some
people like to think of `self` as `.` and `super` as `..`, from many shells’
display for the current directory and the parent directory.

Outside of `use`, paths are relative: `foo::bar()` refers to a function inside
of `foo` relative to where we are. If that’s prefixed with `::`, as in
`::foo::bar()`, it refers to a different `foo`, an absolute path from your
crate root.

Also, note that we `pub use`d before we declared our `mod`s. Rust requires that
`use` declarations go first.

This will build and run:

```bash
$ cargo run
Compiling phrases v0.0.1 (file:///home/you/projects/phrases)
Running `target/debug/phrases`
Hello in English: Hello!
Goodbye in English: Goodbye.
Hello in Japanese: こんにちは
Goodbye in Japanese: さようなら
```
ufcs
# 5.25. Universal Function Call Syntax

Sometimes, functions can have the same names. Consider this code:

```rust
trait Foo {
fn f(&self);
}

trait Bar {
fn f(&self);
}

struct Baz;

impl Foo for Baz {
fn f(&self) { println!("Baz’s impl of Foo"); }
}

impl Bar for Baz {
fn f(&self) { println!("Baz’s impl of Bar"); }
}

let b = Baz;
```

If we were to try to call `b.f()`, we’d get an error:

```text
error: multiple applicable methods in scope [E0034]
b.f();
^~~
note: candidate #1 is defined in an impl of the trait `main::Foo` for the type
`main::Baz`
fn f(&self) { println!("Baz’s impl of Foo"); }
^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
note: candidate #2 is defined in an impl of the trait `main::Bar` for the type
`main::Baz`
fn f(&self) { println!("Baz’s impl of Bar"); }
^~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

```

We need a way to disambiguate which method we need. This feature is called
‘universal function call syntax’, and it looks like this:

```rust
# trait Foo {
# fn f(&self);
# }
# trait Bar {
# fn f(&self);
# }
# struct Baz;
# impl Foo for Baz {
# fn f(&self) { println!("Baz’s impl of Foo"); }
# }
# impl Bar for Baz {
# fn f(&self) { println!("Baz’s impl of Bar"); }
# }
# let b = Baz;
Foo::f(&b);
Bar::f(&b);
```

Let’s break it down.

```rust,ignore
Foo::
Bar::
```

These halves of the invocation are the types of the two traits: `Foo` and
`Bar`. This is what ends up actually doing the disambiguation between the two:
Rust calls the one from the trait name you use.

```rust,ignore
f(&b)
```

When we call a method like `b.f()` using [method syntax][methodsyntax], Rust
will automatically borrow `b` if `f()` takes `&self`. In this case, Rust will
not, and so we need to pass an explicit `&b`.

[methodsyntax]: method-syntax.html

# Angle-bracket Form

The form of UFCS we just talked about:

```rust,ignore
Trait::method(args);
```

Is a short-hand. There’s an expanded form of this that’s needed in some
situations:

```rust,ignore
::method(args);
```

The `<>::` syntax is a means of providing a type hint. The type goes inside
the `<>`s. In this case, the type is `Type as Trait`, indicating that we want
`Trait`’s version of `method` to be called here. The `as Trait` part is
optional if it’s not ambiguous. Same with the angle brackets, hence the
shorter form.

Here’s an example of using the longer form.

```rust
trait Foo {
fn clone(&self);
}

#[derive(Clone)]
struct Bar;

impl Foo for Bar {
fn clone(&self) {
println!("Making a clone of Bar");

::clone(self);
}
}
```

This will call the `Clone` trait’s `clone()` method, rather than `Foo`’s.